Aniracetam

Aniracetam is a nootropic drug that is part of the racetam family. This family was discovered in the 1960s and 70s through multiple sources. Piracetam was the first discovered analog, but aniracetam came shortly afterward. The entire line of drugs is renown for their ability to improve memory and learning.

It can also exhibit anxiolytic properties and enhance mood / reduce depression. It has been well-studied for multiple years and is generally well-tolerated. Many people even have some great stimulation effects from aniracetam.

Benefits of Aniracetam

As research indicates, the main benefits of aniracetam are related to the mental performance. Particularly in the realms of memory and learning. If you are trying to increase your memory and learning capacity, it is a good idea to use a racetam of some sort, but aniracetam is particularly useful.

Studies show that aniracetam has a shorter half life than piracetam, which means it enters your blood stream faster and impacts your brain quicker, but it does not last as long. This is where some people see many of the stimulating properties of aniracetam. Because of this stimulating feature, many people prefer to use aniracetam over the other racetams.

The stimulation is often combined with some synaptic efficiency that can increase the focus and concentration by manifold. People who get started with aniracetam find that it is one of the most profound ways of improving focus and concentration without using a stimulant that negative effects your balance of hormones. For example, caffeine can cause adrenal failure and fatigue.

The great part of aniracetam is that it is a complete nootropic in itself. Of course, it is nice to stack aniracetam with other nootropics (we will discuss this later), but it is still nice to have something that can improve memory and learning while at the same time enhancing concentration and motivation.

There are plenty of people who see benefits of aniracetam, but many do not necessarily know how aniracetam works in order to improve their general cognitive state.

How Aniracetam Works

The scientific understanding of racetams and aniracetam in particular are not well known or completely understood. There are three main ways that aniracetam can help your brain and usually it is a combination of all three that has the most profound impact.

The first is increased blood flow to your brain. Somehow the aniracetam can act as a catalyst for blood to flow more efficiently to parts of your brain that require it for adequate growth. A lot of times this can mean that you are able to see increased concentration as well.

There are two other ways that aniracetam can help to improve your cognition. One of them is through an enhanced utilization and uptake of acetylcholine. This neurotransmitter is used in the hippocampus to develop memories and improve learning. If you have enough acetylcholine, aniracetam is going to help to use more of it so that you can learn better. This is the main mechanism of action for most of the racetam drugs.

The other useful feature of aniracetam is the oxygenation of the brain. Certain parts of the brain are able to get a lot more oxygen as a result of the aniracetam, which has a great effect on memory and learning. It can also have a great impact on stimulation. This is one of the reasons why people love aniracetam and see similar feelings like caffeine or other stimulants.

There may be other reasons why aniracetam is so useful for improving memory and cognitive advantages, but it is a good idea for you to get the best three answers so that you can understand a bit of what to expect.

Aniracetam Nootropic Stacks

There are many people who like to take nootropics as part of nootropic stacks, which are combinations of different compounds that can be used to enhance cognition more than a single drug itself. Often people combine synergistic compounds in order to get the best results. Aniracetam is a great drug because it is in the racetam family and has memory and learning benefits. In addition, you will find that it has a stimulating feeling on its own.

Many people will try to stack aniracetam with other racetams, such as piracetam or phenylpiracetam, and then some type of choline source. Because the racetams increase uptake and utilization of acetylcholine, it makes sense that a choline supplement would go well with aniracetam. Most of the time people eat eggs in too low of a quantity to have enough choline in their brain.

Another series of compounds to combine with aniracetam are useful for concentration and attentiveness. Even though aniracetam has been shown to improve motivation through stimulating activities, it is still nice to have a stack of caffeine and L-theanine that can provide that effect. When combining both the caffeine and L-theanine in a 1:2 ratio, you will be able to get the best results.

Other ways that you can combine aniracetam is if you have mood or anxiety disorders. Many people find that aniracetam can calm and reduce anxiety. This is great to use with some adaptogen herbs like bacopa or ashwagandha. If you can find these in the right doses, it could be a great anti-anxiety combination.

Aniracetam Dosage

Of course, you want to dial in the aniracetam dosage properly before you really start to explore too much of the stacking. Some people think that because it is in the racetam family you should take the same amount as piracetam, but this would probably be too much. It is a good idea to consider expert advice from certain online resources like Reddit or Longecity.

These resources often say that 1.5 grams three times per day could be a good dosage. Even though this equates to around 4500 mg (which can seem high), it is just a beginner recommendation and it is something that you can regulate downwards if you feel more comfortable. If you are not comfortable with starting at a dose or going higher, don’t do it. Having a comfortable dosing is more important.

Aniracetam has a short half life which means it does not last long in your bloodstream. It is therefore a great idea for you to take more doses of smaller quantities throughout the day. You might even take 750 mg of aniracetam 6 times a day if you want constant stimulation, but it might be at the right dose for that.

Aniracetam Side Effects

There are few side effects to worry about with the racetam family of drugs. This is a very safe group of drugs that is structurally similar, but the potency can cause some differences. Because aniracetam enters the blood stream so quickly, it can have a stronger effect and thus requires more care with higher doses. Some people think that because there is a very high upper limit on piracetam they can push the same boundaries with aniracetam – this is not the case!

Aniracetam is a great nootropics that can have the side effect of creating a headache in some individuals. The headache is a result of either too much or, more often, too little acetylcholine. This is a neurotransmitter that is used in order to create memories and for learning. If you have enough acetylcholine in your brain you are going to have the best results, but you can also avoid headaches.

If you see consistent headaches or other side effects that you do not expect, discontinue use of aniracetam or lower the dosage. Sometimes just taking a smaller dosage is all you need to have a better experience.

Studies that Reference Aniracetam

  1. Lee CR, Benfield P. Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders. Drugs Aging. 1994 Mar;4(3):257-73.
  2. Yoshii M, Watabe S. Enhancement of neuronal calcium channel currents by the nootropic agent, nefiracetam (DM-9384), in NG108-15 cells. Brain Res. 1994 Apr 11;642(1-2):123-31.
  3. Ogiso T, et al. Pharmacokinetics of aniracetam and its metabolites in rats. J Pharm Sci. 1998 May;87(5):594-8.
  4. Tian Y, et al. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence study of aniracetam after single-dose administration in healthy Chinese male volunteers. 2008;58(10):497-500. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1296547.
  5. Guenzi A, Zanetti M. Determination of aniracetam and its main metabolite, N-anisoyl-GABA, in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1990 Sep 14;530(2):397-406.
  6. Petkov VD, et al. Changes in the brain biogenic monoamines of rats, induced by piracetam and aniracetam. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1984;10(4):6-15.
  7. Zhang J, et al. Sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of aniracetam in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Oct 15;858(1-2):129-34. Epub 2007 Aug 21.
  8. Nakamura K, Kurasawa M. Serotonergic mechanisms involved in the attentional and vigilance task performance of rats and the palliative action of aniracetam. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 May;361(5):521-8.
  9. Ouchi Y, et al. The effect of aniracetam on cerebral glucose metabolism in rats after lesioning of the basal forebrain measured by PET. J Neurol Sci. 1999 Mar 15;164(1):7-12.
  10. Ito I, et al. Allosteric potentiation of quisqualate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam. J Physiol. 1990 May;424:533-43.
  11. Zhao X, et al. Nootropic drug modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat cortical neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;59(4):674-83.
  12. Shirane M, Nakamura K. Aniracetam enhances cortical dopamine and serotonin release via cholinergic and glutamatergic mechanisms in SHRSP. Brain Res. 2001 Oct 19;916(1-2):211-21.
  13. Eleore L, et al. Modulation of the glutamatergic receptors (AMPA and NMDA) and of glutamate vesicular transporter 2 in the rat facial nucleus after axotomy. Neuroscience. 2005;136(1):147-60. Epub 2005 Sep 21.
  14. Ozawa S, Kamiya H, Tsuzuki K. Glutamate receptors in the mammalian central nervous system. Prog Neurobiol. 1998 Apr;54(5):581-618.
  15. Isaacson JS, Nicoll RA. Aniracetam reduces glutamate receptor desensitization and slows the decay of fast excitatory synaptic currents in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Dec 1;88(23):10936-40.
  16. Francotte P, et al. In search of novel AMPA potentiators. Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2006 Nov;1(3):239-46.
  17. Tang CM, et al. Modulation of the time course of fast EPSCs and glutamate channel kinetics by aniracetam. Science. 1991 Oct 11;254(5029):288-90.
  18. Isaacson JS, Nicoll RA. Aniracetam reduces glutamate receptor desensitization and slows the decay of fast excitatory synaptic currents in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Dec 1;88(23):10936-40.
  19. Kaneko S, et al. Effects of several cerebroprotective drugs on NMDA channel function: evaluation using Xenopus oocytes and {3H}MK-801 binding. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991 Jun 19;207(2):119-28.
  20. Pittaluga A, et al. Aniracetam, 1-BCP and cyclothiazide differentially modulate the function of NMDA and AMPA receptors mediating enhancement of noradrenaline release in rat hippocampal slices. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;359(4):272-9.
  21. Ling DS, Benardo LS. Nootropic Agents Enhance the Recruitment of Fast GABAA Inhibition in Rat Neocortex. Cereb Cortex. 2005 Jul;15(7):921-8. Epub 2004 Sep 30.
  22. Ling DS, Benardo LS. Recruitment of GABAA inhibition in rat neocortex is limited and not NMDA dependent. J Neurophysiol. 1995 Dec;74(6):2329-35.
  23. Cumin R, et al. Effects of the novel compound aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) upon impaired learning and memory in rodents. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1982;78(2):104-11.
  24. Nakamura K, Kurasawa M. Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 May 18;420(1):33-43.
  25. Nakamura K, Tanaka Y. Antidepressant-like effects of aniracetam in aged rats and its mode of action. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Nov;158(2):205-12.
  26. O’Neill MJ, Witkin JM. AMPA receptor potentiators: application for depression and Parkinson’s disease. Curr Drug Targets. 2007 May;8(5):603-20.
  27. Shih YH, Pugsley TA. The effects of various cognition-enhancing drugs on in vitro rat hippocampal synaptosomal sodium dependent high affinity choline uptake. Life Sci. 1985 Jun 3;36(22):2145-52.
  28. Knapp RJ, et al. Antidepressant activity of memory-enhancing drugs in the reduction of submissive behavior model. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Apr 5;440(1):27-35.
  29. Lauterborn JC, et al. Positive modulation of AMPA receptors increases neurotrophin expression by hippocampal and cortical neurons. J Neurosci. 2000 Jan 1;20(1):8-21.
  30. Lauterborn JC, et al. Chronic elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by ampakines. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Oct;307(1):297-305. Epub 2003 Jul 31.
  31. Simmons DA, et al. Up-regulating BDNF with an ampakine rescues synaptic plasticity and memory in Huntington’s disease knockin mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 24;106(12):4906-11. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0811228106. Epub 2009 Mar 5.
  32. Lauterborn JC, et al. Ampakines cause sustained increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling at excitatory synapses without changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression. Neuroscience. 2009 Mar 3;159(1):283-95. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.12.018. Epub 2008 Dec 24.
  33. Kramár EA, et al. A novel mechanism for the facilitation of theta-induced long-term potentiation by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J Neurosci. 2004 Jun 2;24(22):5151-61.
  34. O’Neill MJ, et al. AMPA receptor potentiators for the treatment of CNS disorders. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord. 2004 Jun;3(3):181-94.
  35. Vaglenova J, et al. Aniracetam reversed learning and memory deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure by modulating functions of synaptic AMPA receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Apr;33(5):1071-83. Epub 2007 Jul 4.
  36. Nakamura K, Shirane M. Activation of the reticulothalamic cholinergic pathway by the major metabolites of aniracetam. Neuropsychopharmacology. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 10;380(2-3):81-9.

Author: Racetam.Org Team

We are daily users of nootropics interested in educating the public about racetams, a specific family of nootropics, that has many studies documenting the efficacy of racetams and virtual lack of adverse side effects.

Share This Post On